In this post, we explore the idea of motive in music. What is it? What are some examples? What are its benefits?
Checkout this video:
What is motive in music?
In music, motive (also called cell, figure, or ground) is a short musical idea, usually four measures or less, that recurs throughout a composition to unify the work. A motives rhythmic and/or melodic shape often returns in different voices and Registrations. The entire melody of a work may be based on a single motive or melodic figure (as in the one-note motives of some works by Arnold Schoenberg). On the other hand, there may be numerous motives or melodic fragments occurring throughout a work.
The history of motive in music
The idea of motive in music is not a new one, with the earliest examples arising in the medieval period. The term ‘motive’ comes from the Latin word for ‘movere’, meaning ‘to move’. In music, a motive is a short and easily identifiable melodic or rhythmic fragment which is then repeated or developed throughout a composition.
The use of motives was particularly prevalent in the works of the Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594). In his motet ‘Sicut Cervus’, for example, he utilised a six-note melodic figure which appears in various forms throughout the work. The motive serves to unify the composition and create a sense of cohesion.
It was in the 19th century that the idea of motive really came to the fore, with both Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) and Franz Schubert (1797-1828) making significant use of them in their works. In his Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125, Beethoven employs a four-note motif which represents the Greek letters ‘A-E-F#-B’, spelling out the word ‘Vox Populi’ (the voice of the people). This motif is then developed and transformed throughout the work, appearing in various guises.
Schubert was also fond of employing motives, with his best-known example being his ‘Unfinished Symphony’ in B Minor, D 759. This work makes use of two main motivic ideas; Firstly, a four-note figure which appears in various forms throughout the first movement, and secondly, a short three-note motive which serves as the basis for much of the second movement.
The idea of motive continued to be employed by composers in subsequent centuries right up to the present day. In his opera ‘Carmen’, for example, Georges Bizet (1838-1875) makes use of a distinctive habanera rhythm which reappears several times throughout the work. This provides both unity and variety within the piece and helps to create an overall sense of coherence.
Today, motive remains an important tool for composers looking to create Unity within their works. With its ability to unify disparate elements and create a sense of cohesion, it is clear that motive will continue to play an important role in music for many years to come.
The different types of motive in music
In music, motive refers to a shortmelodic or rhythmic phrase that is then repeated or varied throughout a piece of music. A motive can be as short as a single note or as long as a few measures, and it often serves as the building block for larger musical themes. Motives can be melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic in nature, and they can be performed by any combination of musical instruments.
How motive is used in music
In music, motive is a short melodic or rhythmic phrase that is repeated or elaborated upon throughout a composition. A motive may be as short as a single note or rhythm, or it may be a complete phrase or motif. Motives are the building blocks of melody and rhythm, and they can be used to create larger structures such as themes, fugues, and variations.
Composers often use motives to unify a work, or to create contrast between different sections. For example, Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 begins with a four-note motive that is then repeated and developed throughout the first movement. In the second movement, a new motive is introduced to provide contrast. By the end of the symphony, both motives have been fully developed and combined to create a satisfying conclusion.
Motive can also be used as a tool for analysis. By identifying the motives in a piece of music, we can better understand how it is put together and how it works as a whole.
The benefits of using motive in music
Motive is a musical idea that is repeated throughout a piece of music. It can be a melody, a rhythm, or even just a single note. Motive can be used to create unity within a piece of music, as well as to provide contrast and interest.
There are several benefits to using motive in music. One is that it can help to create a sense of unity within a piece. Motive can also provide contrast and interest, making a piece more enjoyable to listen to. In addition, motive can help to create an emotional response in the listener, making the music more memorable and meaningful.
If you are composing your own music, or even just working on an arrangement of an existing piece, consider incorporating motive into your work. It can make a big difference in the overall effect of the music!
The drawbacks of using motive in music
One of the most common uses of motive in music is to create tension, which can be counterproductive if not used tastefully. Tension is often created by playing a motive in a higher register or faster tempo, or by introducing more complex harmonic changes. While all of these techniques can be effective in moderation, overusing them can make a piece sound preachy or agitated.
Another drawback of using motive too frequently is that it can make a piece sound monotonous. This is especially true if the motive is always played in the same way each time it appears. Variety is crucial to keeping a listener’s attention, so it’s important to find ways to vary the motif throughout the piece. One way to do this is to change the rhythm or melody of the motive when it reappears. Another option is to use different instruments or voices to play the motive each time it appears.
Despite these drawbacks, motive can be a powerful tool for both composers and performers. When used judiciously, it can add interest and excitement to a piece of music.
The future of motive in music
The future of motive in music is still being debated by music theorists. Some say that music will continue to be motivic, meaning that melodies and other musical elements will continue to be based on repetitions and variations of small musical cells or motives. Others believe that music will become more free-flowing and less reliant on tight motivic structures. There is no clear consensus at present, but the debate is ongoing and likely to continue for some time.
How to use motive in music
Motive is a musical idea, usually a short phrase, which is repeated throughout a piece or section of a piece of music. The repetition can be literal (an identical repetition), or it can be varied slightly each time it returns (a modified repetition). Motives help to unify a composition and give it direction.
The different ways to use motive in music
There are many different ways to use motive in music. A motive can be a melodic idea, a rhythmic idea, or even a harmonic idea. A motives can also be combined to create larger musical ideas.
The most basic use of motive is in melody. A melody is simply a series of notes that are put together to create a tune. A melody can be created with just a few notes, or it can be much more complex. The important thing is that the notes are put together in a way that creates a recognizable tune.
Motives can also be used in rhythms. A rhythm is created by repeating a certain pattern of beats. This pattern can be created with any combination of percussion instruments, or even with the human voice. The important thing is that the rhythm is easily recognizable and has a consistent feel to it.
Harmonic motives are created by using notes that belong to the same chord. These motives usually have a very strong and distinct sound, and they can be used to create entire pieces of music that are based on one chord.
Some composers will combine all three of these types of motive to create larger pieces of music. This technique is often used in classical music, but it can also be found in other genres as well.
The benefits and drawbacks of using motive in music
While motive has many benefits, there are also some potential drawbacks to consider. First, motive can be overused, resulting in music that sounds repetitive or monotonous. Second, if not used carefully, motive can make music sound too intellectual or contrived. When used sparingly and with thoughtfulness, however, motive can be a powerful tool that can add interest and depth to your music.